Oxygen & Gases

What is a gas?

A gas is a state of matter with no defined shape or volume. Gases have their own unique behavior depending on a variety of variables, such as temperature, pressure, and volume. The particles that make up a gas can range from individual atoms (such as Argon) to complex molecules (such as Oxygen).  Nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, argon, and carbon dioxide account for about 99% of the composition of the air in our atmosphere.

Their concentrations define their corresponding partial pressure and thus their driving force to migrate from a volume with a higher concentration towards a volume with a lower concentration.Dissolution of a gas into a liquid (such as Oxygen or CO2 into water) is a function of the difference in partial pressure, total pressure, temperature and crystalline or solids contents such as Salt or Sugar.

The %Sat(uration) describes the % of the equilibrium dissolution that a given gas has at a given pressure, temperature and solids content.

The % Vol(ume) describes the % of the volumetric equilibrium dissolution that a given gas has at a given pressure,temperature and solids content.

The mg/L measurement describes the dissolution of gas as molecular weight vs volume of liquid as a measurement of concentration of gas molecules per volume unit of liquid.

Some gases are easier dissolved in specific liquids than others, dependent on their specific molecular structure and bonds.

For optimal Oxygen dissolution into water the relationship can be simplified into:

-Cold water holds far more Oxygen than warm water

-Fresh water holds more Oxygen than saltwater

-Concentrated/Pure Oxygen is much easier and faster to dissolve into water than air.

-The Oxygen/Air dissolution device is of major importance for energy efficient dissolution of Oxygen (and most other gases) into water/liquids.

-The gas surface area (size of the bubbles)in contact with the liquid combined with the contact duration (time) is fundamental for energy efficient dissolution of the gas into the liquid.

-The measurement of Dissolved Oxygen and control of Oxygen/Air dosification is paramount to efficient, economical and safe production of any aquatic species.


Oxygen (O2)

Oxygen gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. The liquid and solid forms are a pale blue color and are strongly paramagnetic. Oxygen supports combustion, combines with most elements, and is a component of hundreds of thousands of organic compounds. The usual form of oxygen near the Earth's surface is dioxygen, O2. Dioxygen or gaseous oxygen is the form of the element used by living organisms for respiration.

Ozone (O3)

Ozone (O3) is an atmospheric gas consisting of 3 oxygen atoms, emitting a characteristic smell. An ozone molecule is divided in a diatomic oxygen molecule (O2) and a single oxygen atom (O). The latest is characterized by highly reactivity, oxidizing both organic and inorganic components rapidly. Trioxygen or ozone (O3) is gaseous at ordinary temperatures and pressure.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Carbon dioxide normally occurs as a colorless gas. In solid form, it is called dry ice. The chemical or molecular formula for carbon dioxide is CO2. The central carbon atom is joined to two oxygen atoms by covalent double bonds. The chemical structure is centrosymmetric and linear, so carbon dioxide has no electric dipole.

Nitrogen (N2)

Nitrogen (Azote) is an important nonmetal and the most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere. Nitrogen gas (N2) makes up 78.1% of the volume of the Earth’s air. Nitrogen gas is obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation from the atmosphere. Nitrogen is found in all living organisms.

Argon (Ar)

Argon is atomic number 18 on the periodic table, with the element symbol Ar. It is a colorless, flavorless, odorless noble gas. It remains colorless even in liquid and solid form, is nonflammable, and nontoxic. Argon is 38% more dense than air, and it accounts for about 0.94% of the Earth's atmosphere. 

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